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Environmental NGOs and renewable energy advocates argue that these corridors are insufficient to meet Germany's climate protection goals.

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The new act also introduced the , roofs program It proved highly successful in combination with the FIT scheme and led to a rapid increase in photovoltaic capacity. To be eligible, companies had to fulfil the following criteria: Exempted firms pay only 0. As a result, non-privileged consumers faced a higher EEG surcharge.

Without the prior act, the EEG would not have been as sophisticated or as far reaching. Notwithstanding, the Economics Ministry remained hostile to the concept of feed-in tariffs and refused to help with legal drafting. While the basic framework remained unchanged, this act introduced a substantially modified and differentiated tariff structure, to better match the economic viabilities of the technologies concerned. Tariffs for biomass, photovoltaics, and geothermal energy were increased.

Detailed measures were introduced to deal with market complexities, windfall profits, and the incentives for innovation and cost reduction. Eligible projects may no longer degrade ecologically sensitive areas. Exemptions for industry from the EEG surcharge under the special equalization scheme were extended considerably.

Railways were now automatically exempt, being regarded as an environmentally friendly form of transport. Renewable targets were now defined in the act for the first time: Thus the EEG resulted in significantly better conditions for photovoltaics, biomass including small farm systems and new technologies , offshore wind, and geothermal energy, while onshore wind and small hydroelectric plant largely retained their former standing.

The new special equalization scheme lead to wider benefits for industry. Only about 40 companies complied under the previous rules, mostly from the chemical, steel, and metals industries. That number climbed to between and with the new rules. Many industry lobbyists argued that the emissions trading transcended the need for a renewable electricity feed-in tariff scheme and that the EEG should therefore be scrapped.

The amendments were undertaken alongside a boom in renewable electricity uptake. In , renewables accounted for The amendments yielded improvements for the entire range of renewables, increased the renewables target considerably, introduced new sustainability criteria for bioenergy, and extended industry privileges.

More specifically, the photovoltaic tariffs were reduced somewhat, but not enough to affect uptake. A new 'self-consumption incentive' granted a fixed tariff of A 'flexible degression cap' was introduced, under which the degression rate could be adjusted to keep the uptake of photovoltaics within a specified corridor.

The support for onshore wind improved. The initial tariff was raised, the repowering when old turbines are replaced by new bonus Repoweringbonus was increased, and an additional system service bonus was granted for specified technical contributions Systemdienstleistungen or SDL , including the ability to maintain voltage if the transmission grid fails.

The tariff for offshore wind was raised substantially. An additional 'early starter bonus' was offered for offshore wind farms entering operation before Support of biomass was also increased, with special bonuses for a number of different biomass types. Biomass must also comply with specified ecological requirements to be eligible, these requirements being contained in a separate 'sustainability ordinance' Nachhaltigkeitsverordnung or BioSt-NachV.

The hydroelectricity tariffs were raised considerably and particularly for micro and small power plants. The tariffs for geothermal energy were raised considerably too, as was the cogeneration bonus. An additional 'early starter bonus' was introduced for geothermal projects put into operation before A 'green power privilege' Grünstromprivileg was introduced, which exempted electricity suppliers with a minimum quota of renewables from the EEG surcharge under certain circumstances.

New measures allowed grid operators to temporarily limit wind turbine output in times of network congestion, with compensation payable to the plant owner for lost remuneration. The government launched its national Energy Concept in September It was becoming clear that action on the photovoltaic remuneration was necessary. The growth in photovoltaics had exceeded all expectations.

As a result, the support costs had skyrocketed. The feed-in rate itself was dependent on the system size and the proportion of demand that was consumed on-site. Free-standing systems were excluded from using agricultural land. The PV Interim Act introduced the possibility of further downward adjustments for the photovoltaic tariffs during the year. It also modified the flexible cap to better control the growth of photovoltaics. In application of the EEG version in force at the time, [29] no further adjustment to the feed-in tariffs occurred in The new EEG sought to advance the dynamic expansion of renewable electricity generation, control the rising costs associated with the scheme, and enhance market and grid integration, while adhering to the principles of a feed-in system.

The revised system includes a market premium scheme, the market premium was intended to prepare renewables for the market and to eventually lower their dependence on explicit policy measures. The rising shares of variable renewable generation had led to concerns about the ability of the electricity system to cope. The new act included measures for the grid integration of photovoltaic systems. Grid operators could now limit the feed-in of photovoltaics in times of grid overload, with the plant operators receiving compensation for their loss of revenue.

A new ordinance required the retrofitting of photovoltaic systems to avoid the The system services bonus for onshore wind was extended and the repowering bonus was improved. Offshore wind gained through improved early starter provisions. The biomass tariff system itself was greatly simplified, with now four size categories and two fuel categories.

The tariffs for geothermal energy were raised and the start of the degression postponed until , albeit at an increased rate. Electricity storage facilities were fully exempted from grid charges and are to be supported by a special research program. Industry privileges under the special equalisation scheme were extended to include more companies and the tariff reductions further improved. As a result, the number of exempt firms rose from in to about in The exempted electricity load rose from Industrial self-consumption, previously exempted from the EEG surcharge, was now subject to the surcharge if the public grid was used, except in special circumstances.

This measure was aimed at preventing abuse through contracting. The introduction of an optional market premium was designed to support demand-oriented electricity generation. The market premium is the difference between the EEG tariff and the average spot market price. An additional management premium reimbursed administration costs and mitigated against market risks.

An additional flexibility premium was introduced for gas storage at biogas facilities. The details of the market premium were to be provided in a following governmental directive, following parliamentary approval.

The green power privilege was also modified. The renewables targets remained unchanged and are identical to those specified in the Energy Concept. In , after numerous complaints, the European Commission opened an in-depth state aid investigation into the EEG surcharge exemptions for energy-intensive companies and into the green power privilege.

Despite the cutbacks in photovoltaic support, photovoltaic installations continued to boom. For the first time, cost control became the "determining factor" in the political debate over the EEG. This was despite the fact that the merit order effect had been depressing electricity spot prices.

The merit order effect occurs when preferentially dispatched wind and photovoltaic generation displaces more expensive fossil fuel generation from the margin — often gas-fired combined cycle plant — thereby driving down the cleared price.

This effect is more pronounced for photovoltaics because their midday peak correlates with the maximum generation requirement on the system. The merit order effect also lowers the revenues for conventional power plants and makes them less economically viable. A study finds that "in the case of the year , the volume of the merit order effect exceeds the volume of the net support payments for renewable electricity generation which have to be paid by consumers".

If new additions exceed this corridor, the degression rises by 1. The self-consumption privilege was removed for new installations, as grid parity was already met: The residual electricity could either be self-consumed or sold on the electricity market. The act is available in English. In turn they receive a market premium from the grid operator to compensate for the difference between the fixed EEG payment and the average spot price for electricity.

The purpose of this Act is to enable the energy supply to develop in a sustainable manner in particular in the interest of mitigating climate change and protecting the environment, to reduce the costs to the economy not least by including long-term external effects, to conserve fossil energy resources and to promote the further development of technologies to generate electricity from renewable energy sources.

The EEG also contains statutory targets for the share of renewable energy in gross final electricity consumption the targets are additional to those set out in the government's Energy Concept statement [16]:. The level of remuneration is still prescribed under the EEG until However the way that new installations receive their remuneration has changed.

Most plant operators must now directly market their output, for which they get an additional market premium payment instead of an explicit feed-in tariff. This premium is the difference between the average monthly wholesale price at the EEX energy exchange and the fixed remuneration stated in the EEG.

From — onwards, defined remuneration rates will be replaced by competitive bidding, also known as auctions or tenders. Those investors offering the lowest prices will then receive support. The flexible cap mechanism for expansion corridors was replaced with set annual targets for the addition of wind, photovoltaic, and biogas capacity. The government hopes these new corridors will lead to a better coordination between renewables and the use and expansion of the transmission network , as well as improving planning security for conventional generators.

The target corridor for photovoltaics is set at 2. Photovoltaic installations beyond this upper bound will not receive funding under the EEG. The remuneration for photovolatic installations is reduced 0. Onshore wind retained its annual target of 2. However the target now excludes repowering, effectively extending the growth cap.

The management premium and the bonus paid to wind farms providing stabilizing features Systemdienstleistungen are now being phased out. From onwards, the onshore wind tariff is reduced quarterly, depending on whether new capacity tracks the prescribed target. For offshore wind, the new act defines a target of 6. Offshore wind farms that entered service before can choose between a fixed payment for 8 years or a reduced payment for 12 years. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get to Know Us. See Complete Table of Contents.

Delivery and Returns see our delivery rates and policies thinking of returning an item? See our Returns Policy. Visit our Help Pages. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Amazon Business Service for business customers. The difference between microbial fuel cells and devices converting energy by purely chemical means is that bacteria and not artificial materials, such as polymer electrolyte membranes and ceramic oxide parts, control the reaction.

Instead of a catalyst, microbes will feed on organic matter, for example, wastewater and lactic acid, to generate a voltage through metabolic activity. Biogas has, for a long time, been known as a renewable energy source. It powers not just stationary systems, that is, CHP plants, but also means of transportation, albeit in purified form. Another versatile energy carrier is hydrogen, especially considering its deployment as zero-emission storage. It can be stored and transported without major technical issues.

At the heart of every PEM fuel cell, there is a membrane electrode assembly. It has a considerable impact on the output and lifetime, as well as the cost, of a stack. It is of such import that it has sparked multiple efforts to research and develop new kinds of materials and manufacturing techniques. Businesses need clearly defined rules to popularize new technologies among a wide variety of users.

Because those in the rapidly growing market for fuel cell devices have seen limited success in standardization, several companies and institutions are now trying to create a shared set of recommendations.