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Brasilien. Universidade de Sao Paulo-USP, Brasil. 2-monatiger Besuch im Herbst Frejlich. Sara Walmsley. Brasilien. Universidade de Sao Paulo-USP, Brasil. 3-monatiger Besuch im Sommer Awuah. Michael. Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. 2-monatiger besuch im Sommer Jureviciute. Zaneta. Kaunas University of Technology, .

If a steady demand in exchange for Canadian exports is seen, that would turn into a positive growth in the trade balance, and that should be positive for the CAD. The Budget Balance released by the Ministry of Finance is the difference between income and expenditure Excluding net lending at the end of the budget's period excluding net lending. Conversely, a low level points to an adverse business climate.

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The Retail Sales released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics is a survey of goods sold by retailers is based on a sampling of retail stores of different types and sizes and it''s considered as an indicator of the pace of the Australian economy. It shows the performance of the retail sector over the short and mid-term.

Positive economic growth anticipates bullish trends for the AUD, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. The Eco Watchers Survey released by the Cabinet Office closely watches region-by-region economic trends. The survey is considered as basic material for assessing short-term economic trends in Japan. A high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the JPY, whereas a low reading is seen as negative or negative.

Retail Sales MoM Link. Retail sales data, released by Singapore of Department Statistics , represents total consumer purchase from retail stores. It provides valuable information about consumer spending which makes up the consumption part of GDP. Rising retail sales indicate stronger economic growth. However, if the increase is larger than the forecast it may be inflationary. Retail Sales YoY Link. Industrial Production MoM Link. The Industrial Production released by the Statistics Denmark shows the volume of production of Danish industries such as factories and manufacturing.

Uptrend is regarded as inflationary which may anticipate interest rates to rise. If high industrial production growth comes out, this may generate a positive sentiment or bullish for the Danish Krone. Gross Domestic Product Link. The Gross Domestic Product released by the National Institute of Statistics is a measure of the total value of all goods and services produced by Romania. The GDP is considered as a broad measure of Romanian economic activity and health.

Generally speaking, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the RON, while a falling trend is seen as negative or bearish. Current Account Balance Link. The current account released by the Central Bank of Turkey is a net flow of current transactions, including goods, services and interest payments into and out of Turkey. A current account surplus indicates that the flow of capital into the country exceeds the capital reduction.

A high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the Lira, whereas a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. The retail Sales released by the Czech Statistical Office measures the total receipts of retail stores.

Monthly percent changes reflect the rate of changes of such sales. Changes in Retail Sales are widely followed as an indicator of consumer spending. Generally speaking, a high reading is seen as positive, or bullish for the Czech Koruna, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. The Gross Domestic Product released by the Czech Statistical Office is a measure of the total value of all goods and services produced by the Czech Republic. The GDP is considered as a broad measure of the Czech economic activity and health.

A rising trend has a positive effect on the Czech Koruna, while a falling trend is seen as negative or bearish. The Industrial Output released by the National Institute of Statistics shows the volume of production of Spanish industries such as factories and manufacturing.

An increase is regarded as inflationary which may anticipate interest rates to rise. Generally, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the Euro, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish.

The Industrial Output released by the National Institute of Statistics shows the volume of production of Italian industries such as factories and manufacturing. An uptrend is regarded as inflationary which may anticipate interest rates to rise. If high industrial output growth comes out, this may generate a positive sentiment or bullish for the Euro.

Manufacturing Production MoM Link. The Manufacturing Production released by the National Statistics measures the manufacturing output. Manufacturing Production is significant as a short term indicator of the strength of UK manufacturing activity that dominates a large part of total GDP.

A high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the GBP, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. Industrial Production YoY Link. Changes in industrial production are widely followed as a major indicator of strength in the manufacturing sector.

A high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the GBP, whereas a low reading is seen as bearish. Manufacturing Production YoY Link. The Index of Services released by the National Statistics measures the monthly movements in gross value added for the service industries. It is worth noting that the UK service sector does not influence, either positively or negatively, the GDP as much as the Manufacturing sector does. Traders want the highest possible reading as that will be taken as positive for the GBP, while a low reading is negative.

Trade Balance; non-EU Link. The Trade Balance released by National Statistics is a balance between exports and imports of total goods and services.

A positive value shows trade surplus, while a negative value shows trade deficit. It is an event that generates some volatility for the GBP. If a steady demand in exchange for UK exports is seen, that would turn into a positive growth in the trade balance, and that should be positive for the GBP.

Total Trade Balance Link. The trade balance released by the National Statistics is a balance between exports and imports of goods A positive value shows trade surplus, while a negative value shows trade deficit. Goods Trade Balance Link. The Gross Domestic Product released by the National Statistics is a measure of the total value of all goods and services produced by the UK. Generally speaking, a rising trend has a positive effect on the GBP, while a falling trend is seen as negative or bearish.

The Economic Sentiment published by the Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung measures the institutional investor sentiment, reflecting the difference between the share of investors that are optimistic and the share of analysts that are pessimistic.

A positive number means that the share of optimists outweighs the share of pessimists. The Consumer Price Index released by the National Statistics Service is a measure of price movements by the comparison between the retail prices of a representative shopping basket of goods and services. The purchase power of the Euro is dragged down by inflation. The CPI is a key indicator to measure inflation and changes in purchasing trends.

Generally speaking, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the Euro, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. The Budget Balance released by the Ministry of Finance is the difference between income and expenditure Excluding net lending at the end of the budget's period excluding net lending. If the amount is positive then the balance shows a surplus, to the contrary, if it is negative, the balance is in deficit.

Generally, a surplus is seen as positive or bullish for the Forint and a deficit is seen as negative or bearish. The IPCA inflation released by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica is a measure of price movements by the comparison between the retail prices from consumption of families with a purchasing power of up to forty minimum wages.

The purchase power of the BRL is dragged down by inflation. The IPCA is a key indicator to measure inflation and changes in purchasing trends.

Generally speaking, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the BRL, while a low reading is seen as negative or Bearish. Foreign Reserves MoM Link. Foreign reserves, released by Monetary Authority of Singapore , are the total of a country's gold holdings and convertible foreign currencies held in its central bank.

Usually includes foreign currencies themselves, other assets denominated in foreign currencies, and particular amount of special drawing rights. A foreign exchange reserve is a useful precaution for countries exposed to financial crises.

It can be used for the purpose of intervening in the exchange market to influence or peg the exchange rate. Sentix Investor Confidence Link. With among financial analysts and institutional investors, the Sentix Investor Confidence is a monthly survey which shows the market opinion about the current economic situation and the expectations for the next semester. The index, released by the Sentix GmbH , is composed by 36 different indicators. Usually, a higher reading is seen as positive for the Eurozone, that means positive, or bullish, for the Euro, While a lower number is seen negative or bearish for the unique currency.

Business Confidence Index Link. Respondents deal with their businesses' spending, employment, consumption and investment situation. It is followed as it flags potential changes in economic growth.

Generally, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the Rand, while a low reading is negative or bearish. The Retail Sales released by the Eurostat is a measure of changes in sales of the Euro zone retail sector. Usually, the positive economic growth anticipates "Bullish" for the EUR, while a low reading is seen as negative, or bearish, for the EUR.

The Budget Balance released by the Ministry of Finance is the difference between income and expenditure Excluding net lending at the end of the budget's period excluding net lending.

If the amount is positive then the balance shows a surplus, to the contrary, if it is negative, the balance is in deficit. Generally, a surplus is seen as positive or bullish for the Forint and a deficit is seen as negative or bearish. The Imacec, released by the Banco Central de Chile , is a monthly indicator of the production in all of the economic sectors in Chile.

It is published around the fith day of each month. Generally speaking, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the CLP, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. The Trade Balance released by the Banco Central de Chile is a balance between exports and imports of total goods and services. A positive value shows trade surplus, while a negative value shows trade deficit.

It is an event that generates some volatility for the CLP. If a steady demand in exchange for Chilean exports is seen, that would turn into a positive growth in the trade balance, and that should be positive for the CLP.

The Central Bank FX Reserves released by the National Bank of Poland present changes in the value of official reserve assets reflecting purchases and sales including swaps of foreign exchange by the Central Bank, earnings on foreign securities, and transactions with official institutions overseas. A high reading is is seen as positive or bullish for the Zloty, while a low reading is seen as negative or Bearish. Treasury Cash Balance Link. The Budget Balance released by the Ministry of Finance is the difference between income and expenditure excluding net lending at the end of the budget's period.

Generally, a surplus is seen as positive or bullish for the Lira and a deficit is seen as negative or bearish. Factory Orders MoM Link. The Factory orders released by the US Census Bureau is a measure of the total orders of durable and non durable goods such as shipments sales , inventories and orders at the manufacturing level which can offer insight into inflation and growth in the manufacturing sector.

Normally, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the USD, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish.

Ivey Purchasing Managers Index s. The Ivey PMI is an important indicator of business conditions and the overall economic condition in Canada.

A result above 50 signals is seen positive, or bullish for the CAD, whereas a result below 50 is seen as negative, or bearish. Ivey Purchasing Managers Index Link. A result above 50 signals is seen positive , or bullish for the CAD, whereas a result below 50 is seen as negative, or bearish. It is worth noting that the non-manufacturing sector does not influence, either positively or negatively, the GDP as much as the ISM Manufacturing does.

A result above 50 is positive or bullish for the USD. Displayed in the calendar is the average yield on the bills auctioned by US Department of Treasury. Treasury bills are short-term securities maturing in one year or less. The yield on the bills represents the return an investor will receive by holding the bond until maturity. Investors monitor the yield volatility and compare the average rate at auction to the rate at previous auctions of the same security as an indicator of the government debt situation.

In , he serves as a voting member of the Federal Open Market Committee. Imports of goods and services, released by Australian Statistician , consist of transactions in goods and services purchases, barter, gifts or grants from non-residents to residents. Exports of goods and services, released by Australian Statistician , consist of transactions in goods and services purchases, barter, gifts or grants from residents to non-residents.

It is used for forecasting employment growth in Australia as it indicates future labor market conditions. A high reading is seen as bullish or postive for the AUD, whereas a low reading is seen as bearish or negative. The trade balance released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics is the difference in the value of its imports and exports of Australian goods. Export data can give an important reflection of Australian growth, while imports provide an indication of domestic demand.

Trade Balance gives an early indication of the net export performance. If a steady demand in exchange for Australian exports is seen, that would turn into a positive growth in the trade balance, and that should be positive for the AUD.

The Producer Price Index released by the National Bureau of Statistics of China is a measurement of the rate of inflation experienced by producers.

It captures the average changes in prices received by Chinese domestic producers of commodities in all stages of processing crude materials, intermediate materials, and finished goods.

Changes in the PPI are widely considered as an indicator of commodity inflation. Generally speaking, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the CNY, whereas a low reading is seen as negative or bearish for the CNY.

Consumer Confidence Index Link. The Consumer Confidence released by the Cabinet Office captures the level of sentiment that individuals have in economic activity. A high level of consumer confidence stimulates economic expansion while a low level drives to economic downturn.

Normally, a result above 50 is positive or bullish for the JPY, whereas a result below 50 is seen as bearish. Consumer Price Index n. The Consumer Price Index released by Statistics Netherlands is a measure of price movements by the comparison between the retail prices of a representative shopping basket of goods and services. The purchase power of EUR is dragged down by inflation.

The CPI is a key indicator to measure inflation and changes in purchasing trends. Generally speaking, a high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the EUR, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. Reserves can be a precautionary measure for countries susceptible to financial crisis.

It can also be used to manipulate exchange rates. A high reading is is seen as positive or bullish for the Rand, while a low reading is seen as negative or Bearish. If the rate is up, it indicates a lack of expansion within the Swiss lobar market. As a result, a rise leads to weaken the Swiss economy. A decrease of the figure is seen as positive or bullish for the CHF, while an increase is seen as negative or bearish.

The Industrial Production released by the Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland measures outputs of the German factories and mines. Changes in industrial production are widely followed as a major indicator of strength in the manufacturing sector. A high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the EUR, whereas a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. The Trade Balance released by the Statistics Finland is a balance between exports and imports of total goods and services.

It is an event that generates some volatility for the EUR. If a steady demand in exchange for Finnish exports is seen, that would turn into a positive growth in the trade balance, and that should be positive or bullish for the EUR.

The Manufacturing Output released by Statistics Norway shows the volume of production of Norwegian manufacturers. Uptrend is regarded as inflationary which may anticipate interest rates to rise. If high industrial production growth comes out, this may generate a positive sentiment or bullish for the Norwegian krone.

The retail sales is a survey of goods sold in the last month and serves as an indicator of the Swiss consumer demand. The figure here is real, not nominal, and non-seasonally adjusted. Generally, an increase in this figure is bullish for the CHF while a decrease is bearish. The current account released by the Banque de France is a net flow of current transactions, including goods, services and interest payments into and out of France.

A current account surplus indicates that the flow of capital into the country exceeds the capital reduction. A high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the Euro, whereas a low reading is seen as negative or bearish. Industrial Production YoY Link. The Industrial Production released by the Czech Statistical Office shows the volume of production of Czech industries such as factories and manufacturing. If high industrial production growth comes out, this may generate a positive sentiment or bullish for the Czech Koruna.

Construction output YoY Link. The report released by the Czech Statistical Office is the output of the construction industry, in both the private and public sectors. It shows the strength of the construction industry, which, at the same time, hints at the investments made in this sector of the economy.

Normally, a high reading is positive for the Czech Koruna, while a low reading is negative. The housing prices are considered as a key indicator for inflationary pressures. A high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the GBP, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish.

FX reserves can be a precautionary measure for countries susceptible to financial crisis. A high reading is is seen as positive or bullish for the Czech Koruna, while a low reading is seen as negative or Bearish.

The Industrial Confidence released by the European Commission is an index that measures the level of industrial executives confidence in economic activity. The survey asks about orders and buildup of inventories. A high level of industrial confidence stimulates economic expansion while a low level drives to economic downturn. A high reading is seen as positive or bullish for the EUR, while a low reading is seen as negative or bearish.

Services sentiment indicator, released by European Comission , measures business sentiment in the services sector. The figure is derived from a survey asking firms in the service sector about current and expected demand.

Since the service sector accounts for roughly two thirds of total Euro-zone GDP, Services Confidence provides an important confirmation of the health for the overall economy. High levels of Services Confidence suggest future upward trends for production and employment. The figure is determined by the difference between positive and negative answers.

Therefore a headline above zero indicates positive service sector confidence, while a negative number shows negative confidence.

Economic Sentiment Indicator Link. The Euro Zone Economic Confidence released by the European Commission is a survey of consumers confidence in economic activity. It indicates the trend of the overall Euro Zone economy. An optimistic view of consumers is considered as positive for the EUR, whereas a pessimistic view is considered as negative. The Consumer Confidence released by the European Commission is a leading index that measures the level of consumer confidence in economic activity.

Business climate indicator, released by European Comission , is based on monthly surveys and is designed to deliver a clear and timely assessment of the cyclical situation within the euro area.

It may be interpreted as a survey result: Conversely, a low level points to an adverse business climate. A rise a fall in the indicator will point to an upswing in activity and an improvement deterioration in the business climate.

Its movement is clearly linked to the industrial production of the euro area. Industrial Output YoY Link.