Economy of Mexico

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New Twists to an Old Story". Das Abkommen mit der EU wurde am With the discovery of vast oil fields in a time in which oil prices were surging and international interest rates were low -and even negative- the government decided to borrow from international capital markets to invest in the state-owned oil company, which in turn seemed to provide a long-run income source to promote social welfare. If the central bank wanted to push interest rates higher, it increased the corto.

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Peru (auf Quechua Piruw Republika, Aymara Piruw Suyu, spanisch República del Perú, amtlich Republik Peru) ist ein Staat im westlichen Südamerika und grenzt im Norden an Ecuador und Kolumbien, im Osten an Brasilien, im Südosten an Bolivien, im Süden an Chile und im Westen an den Pazifik.

The electronics industry of Mexico has grown enormously within the last decade. Due to Mexico's position as the largest manufacturer of television it is known as the television capital of the world [] in the electronics industry. Mexico is the third largest manufacturers of computers in the world with both domestic companies such as Lanix , [] Texa , [] Meebox , [] Spaceit, [] Kyoto [] and foreign companies such as Dell , [] [] Sony , HP , [] Acer [] Compaq , [] Samsung and Lenovo [] [] manufacturing various types of computers across the country.

Most of the computers manufactured in Mexico are from foreign companies. Mexico is Latin America's largest producer of electronics and appliances made by domestic companies.

The success and rapid growth of the Mexican electronics sector is driven primarily by the relatively low cost of manufacturing and design in Mexico; its strategic position as a major consumer electronics market coupled with its proximity to both the large North American and South American markets whom Mexico shares free trade agreements with; government support in the form of low business taxes, simplified access to loans and capital for both foreign multinational and domestic startup tech-based firms; and a very large pool of highly skilled, educated labor across all sectors of the tech industry.

For example, German multinational engineering and electronics conglomerate Siemens has a significant Mexican base, which also serves as its business and strategy hub for Central American countries and the Caribbean region.

There are almost half a million , students enrolled in electronics engineering programs [] with an additional , electronics engineers entering the Mexican workforce each year [] and Mexico had over half a million , certified electronic engineering professionals employed in While many foreign companies like Phillips , Vizio and LG simply install wholly owned factories in Mexico a number of foreign companies have set up semi-independent joint venture companies with Mexican businesses to manufacture and design components in Mexico.

These companies are independently operated from their foreign parent companies and are registered in Mexico. These local companies function under Mexican law and retain a sizable portion of the revenue.

These companies typically function dually as in-company OEM development and design facilities and manufacturing centers and usually produce most components needed to manufacture the finished products. An example would by Sharp which has formed Semex.

Semex was founded as a joint venture between Sharp and Mexican investors which acts as an autonomous independent company which Sharp only maintains partial control over. The company manufactures whole products such televisions and designs individual components on behalf of Sharp such as LCD modules and in return Semex is granted access to Sharp capital, technology, research capacity and branding. Some of these subsidiaries have grown to expand into multiple branches effectively becoming autonomous conglomerates within their own parent companies.

Sony for example started operations in Mexico in with a group of Mexican investors, and founded the joint venture, Sony de Mexico [] which produces LED panels, LCD modules, automotive electronics, appliances and printed circuit boards amongst other products for its Japanese parent company, Sony KG. Sony de Mexico has research facilities in Monterrey and Mexico City , designs many of the Sony products manufactured in Mexico and has now expanded to create its own finance, music and entertainment subsidiaries which are Mexican registered and independent of their Japanese parent corporation.

Mineral resources are the "nation's property" i. As such, the energy sector is administered by the government with varying degrees of private investment.

Without enough money to continue investing in finding new sources or upgrading infrastructure, and being protected constitutionally from private and foreign investment, some have predicted the company may face institutional collapse. In oil exports accounted for Mexico's installed electricity capacity in was 58 GW. Since Mexico is a net importer of natural gas, higher levels of natural gas consumption i. The automotive sector accounts for Mexico has a MXN 4.

In the tertiary sector was estimated to account for Mexico's service sector is strong, and in replaced Brazil 's as the largest service sector in Latin America in dollar terms. Tourism is one of the most important industries in Mexico.

It is the fourth largest source of foreign exchange for the country. According to the IMF the Mexican banking system is strong, in which private banks are profitable and well-capitalized. The process of institution building in the financial sector in Mexico has evolved hand in hand with the efforts of financial liberalization and of inserting the economy more fully into world markets.

Their presence, along with a better regulatory framework, has allowed Mexico's banking system to recover from the —95 peso devaluation. Lending to the public and private sector is increasing and so is activity in the areas of insurance, leasing and mortgages. A wave of acquisitions has left Mexico's financial sector in foreign hands.

Their foreign-run affiliates compete with independent financial firms operating as commercial banks, brokerage and securities houses, insurance companies, retirement-fund administrators, mutual funds, and leasing companies.

It is Latin America's second largest exchange, after Brazil's. In the IPC surged It continued its steep rise through the beginning of , reaching 19, The stockmarket also posted a record low vacancy rate, according to the central bank. As of March there were listed companies, down from a year earlier. Only a handful of the listed companies are foreign. The IPC consists of a sample of 35 shares weighted according to their market capitalisation.

The makeup of the IPC is adjusted every six months, with selection aimed at including the most liquid shares in terms of value, volume and number of trades. Mexico's stockmarket is closely linked to developments in the US. Thus, volatility in the New York and Nasdaq stock exchanges, as well as interest-rate changes and economic expectations in the US, can steer the performance of Mexican equities. Currently, the decline in the value of the dollar is making non-US markets, including Mexico's, more attractive.

Despite the recent gains, investors remain wary of making placements in second-tier initial public offerings IPOs. Purchasers of new issues were disappointed after prices fell in numerous medium-sized companies that made offerings in and There were three IPOs in It is also the lender of last resort. Mexico has a floating exchange rate regime. The floating exchange originated with reforms initiated after the December peso crash which had followed an unsustainable adherence to a short band.

It also possesses tools aimed at smoothing out volatility. The resulting high levels of reserves, mostly from petroleum revenues, have helped to improve the terms and conditions on debt Mexico places on foreign markets. However, there is concern that the government relies too heavily on oil income in order to build a healthy base of reserves. Some experts including analysts at Goldman Sachs who coined the term BRIC in reference to the growing economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China for marketing purposes believe that Mexico is going to be the 5th or 6th biggest economy in the world by the year , behind China , United States, India , Brazil, and possibly Russia.

Mexico's monetary policy was revised following the —95 financial crisis, when officials decided that maintaining general price stability was the best way to contribute to the sustained growth of employment and economic activity. It sets an inflation target, which requires it to establish corresponding quantitative targets for the growth of the monetary base and for the expansion of net domestic credit.

A debate continues over whether Mexico should switch to a US-style interest rate-targeting system. Government officials in favor of a change say that the new system would give them more control over interest rates, which are becoming more important as consumer credit levels rise.

Until [ citation needed ] , Mexico used a unique system, amongst the OECD countries, [] to control inflation in a mechanism known as the corto lit.

If the central bank wanted to push interest rates higher, it increased the corto. If it wished to lower interest rates, it decreased the corto. Using relatively recent night light data and electricity consumption in comparison with Gross County Product, the informal sector of the local economy in Veracruz state is shown to have grown during the period of the Fox Administration though the regional government remained PRI.

The small amount of local spatial autocorrelation that was found suggests a few clusters of high and low literacy rates amongst municipios in Veracruz but not enough to warrant including an I-statistic as a regressor.

Global spatial autocorrelation is found especially literacy at the macro-regional level which is an area for further research beyond this study.

Improved literacy bolsters both the informal and formal economies in Veracruz indicating policies designed to further literacy are vital for growing the regional economy. While indigenous people are relatively poor, little evidence was found that the informal economy is a higher percentage of total economic activity in a municipio with a high share of indigenous people. While the formal economy might have been expanding relative to the informal economy in , by this process had been reversed with growing informality.

While rural municipios have smaller economies, they are not different than urban municipios in the share of the economy that is informal. Programs in the past that might move economic activity from the informal to the formal sector have not succeeded, suggesting public finance issues such as tax evasion will continue to plague the state with low government revenues.

Mexico is an export-oriented economy. It is an important trade power as measured by the value of merchandise traded, and the country with the greatest number of free trade agreements. Fox's administration promoted the establishment of a Free Trade Area of the Americas ; Puebla served as temporary headquarters for the negotiations, and several other cities are now candidates for its permanent headquarters if the agreement is reached and implemented.

Mexico has signed 12 free trade agreements with 44 countries:. Mexico has shown interest in becoming an associate member of Mercosur. The NAAEC agreement was a response to environmentalists' concerns that companies would relocate to Mexico or the United States would lower its standards if the three countries did not achieve a unanimous regulation on the environment.

The NAALC supplement to NAFTA aimed to create a foundation for cooperation among the three members for the resolution of labor problems, as well as to promote greater cooperation among trade unions and social organizations in all three countries, in order to fight for the improvement of labor conditions.

Though most economists agree that it is difficult to assess the direct impact of the NAALC, it is agreed that there has been a convergence of labor standards in North America. Given its limitations, however, NAALC has not produced and in fact was not intended to achieve convergence in employment, productivity and salary trend in North America. The agreement fell short in liberalizing movement of people across the three countries. In a limited way, however, immigration of skilled Mexican and Canadian workers to the United States was permitted under the TN status.

NAFTA allows for a wide list of professions, most of which require at least a bachelor's degree, for which a Mexican or a Canadian citizen can request TN status and temporarily immigrate to the United States. Unlike the visas available to other countries, TN status requires no sponsorship, but simply a job offer letter.

Nonetheless, they also state that it has not been enough, or fast enough, to produce an economic convergence nor to reduce the poverty rates substantially or to promote higher rates of growth. Beside this the textile industry gain hype with this agreement and the textile industry in Mexico gained open access to the American market, promoting exports to the United States. The value of Mexican cotton and apparel exports to the U. At the same time, the share of Mexico's cotton textile market the U.

In recent years, start up incubators like Technology Hub have sprung up in major metropolitan areas all over Mexico. Contrary to popular belief, the maquiladora program was in place far before NAFTA, in some sense dating all the way back to A maquiladora manufacturer operates by importing raw materials into Mexico either tariff free NAFTA or at a reduced rate on a temporary basis 18 months and then using Mexico's relatively less expensive labor costs to produce finished goods for export.

Prior to NAFTA maquiladora companies importing raw materials from anywhere in the world were given preferential tariff rates by the Mexican government so long as the finished good was for export.

The US, prior to NAFTA, allowed Maquiladora manufactured goods to be imported into the US with the tariff rate only being applied to the value of non US raw materials used to produce the good, thus reducing the tariff relative to other countries.

NAFTA has eliminated all tariffs on goods between the two countries, but for the maquiladora industry significantly increased the tariff rates for goods sourced outside of NAFTA. Given the overall size of trade between Mexico and the United States, there are remarkably few trade disputes, involving relatively small dollar amounts. The most significant areas of friction involve trucking, sugar, high-fructose corn syrup , and a number of other agricultural products.

A research brief published by the World Bank [] as part of its Trade Costs and Facilitation Project suggests that Mexico has the potential to substantially increase trade flows and economic growth through trade facilitation reform. The study examines the potential impacts of trade facilitation reforms in four areas: Increases in exports, including textiles, would result primarily from improvements in port efficiency and the regulatory environment. Exports of transport equipment would be expected to increase by the greatest increment from improvements in port efficiency, whereas exports of food and machinery would largely be the result of improvements in the regulatory environment.

On the imports side, Mexican improvements in port efficiency would appear to be the most important factor, although for imports of transport equipment, improvements in service sector infrastructure would also be of relative importance.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Economy of Mexico Mexico City is the financial center of Mexico. Population below poverty line. Food and beverages tobacco aerospace chemicals iron and steel petroleum mining textiles clothing motor vehicles consumer durables tourism.

Economic history of Mexico. List of Mexican states by GDP. Petroleum industry in Mexico. Electricity sector in Mexico.

Automotive industry in Mexico. North American Free Trade Agreement. Retrieved 11 September Retrieved June 11, Retrieved November 24, Secretary of Hacienda and Public Credit exchange rate from cia factbook ". Archived from the original on July 22, Archived from the original on September 4, Retrieved December 26, Retrieved May 31, Retrieved June 26, Retrieved February 19, Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original on December 6, Archived from the original on May 8, Mexicans work longest hours in world".

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