A progressive lens gives you three vision powers in one seamless lens for a more natural and flattering way to see your world. Retrieved from " https: Reformers such as Taft believed landownership would turn unruly agrarians into loyal subjects. There they would be taught by full-time professional teachers who had graduated from the states' teachers colleges, were certified, and were monitored by the county superintendents.
The power of progressive lenses changes gradually from point to point on the lens surface, providing the correct lens power for seeing objects clearly at virtually any distance.
Bifocals, on the other hand, have only two lens powers — one for seeing distant objects clearly and a second power in the lower half of the lens for seeing clearly at a specified reading distance. The junction between these distinctly different power zones is defined by a visible "bifocal line" that cuts across the center of the lens. Progressive lenses sometimes are called "no-line bifocals" because they don't have this visible bifocal line.
But progressive lenses have a significantly more advanced multifocal design than bifocals or trifocals. Premium progressive lenses such as Varilux usually provide the best comfort and performance, but there are many other brands as well. Your eye care professional can discuss with you the features and benefits of the latest progressive lenses and help you find the best lenses for your specific needs.
Most people start needing multifocal eyeglasses sometime after age This is when a normal aging change in the eye called presbyopia reduces our ability to see clearly up close. For anyone with presbyopia, progressive lenses have significant visual and cosmetic benefits compared with traditional bifocals and trifocals. As already mentioned, bifocals have just two powers — one in the top half of the lens for distance vision, and a second in the lower half of the lens for near vision.
Basically, this zone for near vision is the combination of the lens prescription for distance vision plus an added amount of magnifying power to help you see small print and near objects more clearly.
This additional magnifying power is called the near "add" of the bifocal prescription. Typically it's the added power required to enable you to see clearly at a normal reading distance of about 16 inches from your eyes.
Trifocals go one step further — they have a third power for seeing objects clearly at arm's length. This "intermediate" power of a trifocal lens is located in a thin horizontal zone between the distance and near power zones. Progressive lenses, on the other hand, have many more lens powers than bifocals or trifocals, and there's a gradual change in power from point to point across the surface of the lens.
Today's premium progressive lenses also are very comfortable to wear. This is especially true of modern "free-form" progressive lenses made with digital design and production tools. A professional optician can help you select the best progressive lens brand and design for your eyeglass prescription and your unique visual needs. In particular, modern progressive lenses are preferred for anyone who wants the latest technology in multifocal vision correction and also wants the most appealing eyeglasses possible with no old-fashioned lines in the lenses.
There are many brands of progressive lenses, and most brands have several different designs for specific wearers' needs. Seek the services of a knowledgeable optician to be custom-fitted with progressive lenses that best suited to your needs. Your optician also can give you helpful tips on how to quickly become accustomed to wearing your new progressive lenses and how to care for your eyeglasses to continue seeing clearly and to protect your investment.
Inspired by crusading Judge Ben Lindsey of Denver, cities established juvenile courts to deal with disruptive teenagers without sending them to adult prisons. During the progressive era more women took work outside the home. For the working class this work was often as a domestic servant. Yet working or not women were expected to perform all the cooking and cleaning. This "affected female domestics' experiences of their homes, workplaces, and possessions, While the male household members, comforted by the smells of home cooking, fresh laundry, and soaped floors, would have seen home as a refuge from work, women would have associated these same smells with the labor that they expended to maintain order.
The "introduction of gas, indoor plumbing, electricity and garbage pickup had a significant impact on the homes and the women who were responsible form maintaining them.
These products were anything from mayonnaise, soda, or canned vegetables. The purity of food, milk and drinking water became a high priority in the cities. At the state and national levels new food and drug laws strengthened urban efforts to guarantee the safety of the food system. The federal Pure Food and Drug Act , which was pushed by drug companies and providers of medical services, removed from the market patent medicines that had never been scientifically tested.
With the decrease in standard working hours, urban families had more leisure time. Many spent this leisure time at movie theaters. Progressives advocated for censorship of motion pictures as it was believed that patrons especially children viewing movies in dark, unclean, potentially unsafe theaters, might be negatively influenced in witnessing actors portraying crimes, violence, and sexually suggestive situations. Progressives across the country influenced municipal governments of large urban cities, to build numerous parks where it was believed that leisure time for children and families could be spent in a healthy, wholesome environment, thereby fostering good morals and citizenship.
Some Progressives sponsored eugenics as a solution to excessively large or underperforming families, hoping that birth control would enable parents to focus their resources on fewer, better children.
The Progressives fixed some of their reforms into law by adding amendments 16, 17, 18, and 19 to the US Constitution. The 16th amendment made an income tax legal this required an amendment due to Article One, Section 9 of the Constitution, which required that direct taxes be laid on the States in proportion to their population as determined by the decennial census.
The Progressives also made strides in attempts to reduce political corruption through the 17th amendment direct election of U. The most radical and controversial amendment came during the anti-German craze of World War I that helped the Progressives and others push through their plan for prohibition through the 18th amendment once the Progressives fell out of power the 21st amendment repealed the 18th in The ratification of the 19th amendment in , which recognized women's suffrage was the last amendment during the progressive era.
In , Benjamin Gitlow was convicted under the Espionage Act of and the case went all the way to the Supreme Court, where the justices decided that the First Amendment applied to the states as well as the federal government. Prior to that time, the Bill of Rights was considered to apply only to the federal government, not the states. Prohibition was the outlawing of the manufacture, sale and transport of alcohol.
Drinking itself was never prohibited. Throughout the Progressive Era, it remained one of the prominent causes associated with Progressivism at the local, state and national level, though support across the full breadth of Progressives was mixed.
It pitted the minority urban Catholic population against the larger rural Protestant element, and Progressivism's rise in the rural communities was aided in part by the general increase in public consciousness of social issues of the temperance movement , which achieved national success with the passage of the 18th Amendment by Congress in late , and the ratification by three-fourths of the states in Prohibition was essentially a religious movement backed by the Methodists, Baptists, Congregationalists, Scandinavian Lutherans and other evangelical churches.
Activists were mobilized by the highly effective Anti-Saloon League. Agitation for prohibition began during the Second Great Awakening in the s when crusades against drinking originated from evangelical Protestants. During the s, referendums were held at the state level to enact prohibition amendments. Two important groups were formed during this period. Rather than condemn all drinking, the group focused attention on the saloon which was considered the ultimate symbol of public vice.
The league also concentrated on campaigns for the right of individual communities to choose whether to close their saloons. In , Congress passed the Webb-Kenyon Act , which forbade the transport of liquor into dry states.
By , two thirds of the states had some form of prohibition laws and roughly three quarters of the population lived in dry areas. In , the Anti-Saloon League first publicly appealed for a prohibition amendment. They preferred a constitutional amendment over a federal statute because although harder to achieve, they felt it would be harder to change. The War Prohibition Act, November, , forbade the manufacture and sale of intoxicating beverages more than 2. The drys worked energetically to secure two-third majority of both houses of Congress and the support of three quarters of the states needed for an amendment to the federal constitution.
Thirty-six states were needed, and organizations were set up at all 48 states to seek ratification. In late , Congress passed the Eighteenth Amendment; it was ratified in and took effect in January It prohibited the manufacturing, sale or transport of intoxicating beverages within the United States, as well as import and export.
The Volstead Act , , defined intoxicating as having alcohol content greater than 0. The states were at liberty to enforce prohibition or not, and most did not try. Consumer demand, however, led to a variety of illegal sources for alcohol, especially illegal distilleries and smuggling from Canada and other countries. It is difficult to determine the level of compliance, and although the media at the time portrayed the law as highly ineffective, even if it did not eradicate the use of alcohol, it certainly decreased alcohol consumption during the period.
The Eighteenth Amendment was repealed in , with the passage of the Twenty-First Amendment, thanks to a well-organized repeal campaign led by Catholics who stressed personal liberty and businessmen who stressed the lost tax revenue.
The Progressives sought to reform and modernize schools at the local level. The era was notable for a dramatic expansion in the number of schools and students attending them, especially in the fast-growing metropolitan cities.
The result was the rapid growth of the educated middle class, who typically were the grass roots supporters of Progressive measures. A new field of study, the art and science of homemaking, emerged in the Progressive Era in an effort to feminize women's education in the United States. Alternatively called home arts, or home economics, the major curriculum reform in women's education was influenced by the publication of Treatise on Domestic Economy , written by Catherine Beecher in Advocates of home economics argued that homemaking, as a profession, required education and training for the development of an efficient and systematic domestic practice.
The curriculum aimed to cover a variety of topics, including teaching standardized way of gardening, child-rearing, cooking, cleaning, performing household maintenance, and doctoring. Such scientific management applied to the domestic sphere was presented as a solution to the dilemma middle class women faced in terms of searching for meaning and fulfillment in their role of housekeeping.
The feminist perspective, by pushing for this type of education, intended to explain that women had separate but equally important responsibilities in life with men that required proper training.
There was a concern towards working-class children being taken out of school to be put straight to work. Progressives around the country put up campaigns to push for an improvement in public education and to make education mandatory. It was further pushed in the South, where education was very much behind compared to the rest of the country. The Southern Education Board came together to publicize the importance of reform.
However, many rejected the reform. Farmers and workers relied heavily on their eldest children, their first born, to work and help the family's income. Immigrants were not for reform either, fearing that such a thing would Americanize their children.
Despite those fighting against reform, there was a positive outcome to the fight for reform. Enrollment for children age 5 to 19 in school rose from Enrollment in public secondary school went from , to , School funds and the term of public schools also grew.
The Flexner Report of , sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation , professionalized American medicine by discarding the scores of local small medical schools and focusing national funds, resources, and prestige on larger, professionalized medical schools associated with universities. It established national standards for law schools, which led to the replacement of the old system of young men studying law privately with established lawyers by the new system of accredited law schools associated with universities.
Progressive scholars, based at the emerging research universities such as Harvard , Columbia , Johns Hopkins , Chicago , Michigan , Wisconsin and California , worked to modernize their disciplines. The heyday of the amateur expert gave way to the research professor who published in the new scholarly journals and presses.
Their explicit goal was to professionalize and make "scientific" the social sciences, especially history ,  economics ,  and political science. The Progressive Era was one of general prosperity after the Panic of —a severe depression—ended in The Panic of was short and mostly affected financiers. However, Campbell stresses the weak points of the economy in —, linking them to public demands for more Progressive interventions.
The Panic of was followed by a small decline in real wages and increased unemployment, with both trends continuing until World War I. Campbell emphasizes the resulting stress on public finance and the impact on the Wilson administration's policies. The weakened economy and persistent federal deficits led to changes in fiscal policy, including the imposition of federal income taxes on businesses and individuals and the creation of the Federal Reserve System.
In the Gilded Age late 19th century the parties were reluctant to involve the federal government too heavily in the private sector, except in the area of railroads and tariffs. In general, they accepted the concept of laissez-faire , a doctrine opposing government interference in the economy except to maintain law and order. This attitude started to change during the depression of the s when small business, farm, and labor movements began asking the government to intercede on their behalf.
By the start of the 20th century, a middle class had developed that was leery of both the business elite and the radical political movements of farmers and laborers in the Midwest and West. The Progressives argued the need for government regulation of business practices to ensure competition and free enterprise. Congress enacted a law regulating railroads in the Interstate Commerce Act , and one preventing large firms from controlling a single industry in the Sherman Antitrust Act.
These laws were not rigorously enforced, however, until the years between and , when Republican President Theodore Roosevelt — , Democratic President Woodrow Wilson — , and others sympathetic to the views of the Progressives came to power. Many of today's U.
Muckrakers were journalists who encouraged readers to demand more regulation of business. Upton Sinclair 's The Jungle was influential and persuaded America about the supposed horrors of the Chicago Union Stock Yards , a giant complex of meat processing plants that developed in the s.
Tarbell wrote a series of articles against Standard Oil , which was perceived to be a monopoly. This affected both the government and the public reformers.
Attacks by Tarbell and others helped pave the way for public acceptance of the breakup of the company by the Supreme Court in When Democrat Woodrow Wilson was elected President with a Democratic Congress in he implemented a series of Progressive policies in economics.
In , the Sixteenth Amendment was ratified, and a small income tax was imposed on higher incomes. The Democrats lowered tariffs with the Underwood Tariff in , though its effects were overwhelmed by the changes in trade caused by the World War that broke out in Wilson proved especially effective in mobilizing public opinion behind tariff changes by denouncing corporate lobbyists, addressing Congress in person in highly dramatic fashion, and staging an elaborate ceremony when he signed the bill into law.
He managed to convince lawmakers on the issues of money and banking by the creation in of the Federal Reserve System , a complex business-government partnership that to this day dominates the financial world. In , Henry Ford dramatically increased the efficiency of his factories by large-scale use of the moving assembly line, with each worker doing one simple task in the production of automobiles.
Emphasizing efficiency, Ford more than doubled wages and cut hours from 9 a day to 8 , attracting the best workers and sharply reducing labor turnover and absenteeism. His employees could and did buy his cars, and by cutting prices over and over he made the Model T cheap enough for millions of people to buy in the U. Ford's profits soared and his company dominated the world's automobile industry. Henry Ford became the world-famous prophet of high wages and high profits. Labor unions, especially the American Federation of Labor AFL , grew rapidly in the early 20th century, and had a Progressive agenda as well.
After experimenting in the early 20th century with cooperation with business in the National Civic Federation , the AFL turned after to a working political alliance with the Democratic party. The alliance was especially important in the larger industrial cities.
The unions wanted restrictions on judges who intervened in labor disputes, usually on the side of the employer. They finally achieved that goal with the Norris—La Guardia Act of By the turn of the century, more and more small businesses were getting fed up with the way that they were treated compared to the bigger businesses.
It seemed that the "Upper Ten" were turning a blind-eye to the smaller businesses, cutting corners where ever they could to make more profit. The big businesses would soon find out that the smaller businesses were starting to gain ground over them, so they became unsettled as described; "Constant pressure from the public, labor organizations, small business interests, and federal and state governments forced the corporate giants to engage in a balancing act.
The big businesses would soon find out that in order to succeed they would have to band together with the smaller businesses to be successful, kind of a "Yin and Yang" effect. The influx of immigration grew steadily after , with most new arrivals being unskilled workers from southern and eastern Europe.
These immigrants were able to find work in the steel mills, slaughterhouses, fishing industry, and construction crews of the emergent mill towns and industrial cities mostly in the Northeast, Midwest, and West Coast. The outbreak of World War I in halted most transcontinental immigration, only after did the flow of immigrants resume. Starting in the s, the labor unions aggressively promoted restrictions on immigration, especially restrictions on Chinese, Japanese and Korean immigrants.
As a result, many large corporations were opposed to immigration restrictions. By the early s, a consensus had been reached that the total influx of immigration had to be restricted, and a series of laws in the s accomplished that purpose. During World War I, the Progressives strongly promoted Americanization programs, designed to modernize the recent immigrants and turn them into model American citizens, while diminishing loyalties to the old country. Foreign policy in the progressive era was often marked by a hint of moral supremacy, with assessments of Woodrow Wilson and William Jennings Bryan believing themselves to be 'Missionaries of Democracy' being accurate, with them believing that they were "Inspired by the confidence that they knew better how to promote the peace and well-being of other countries than did the leaders of those countries themselves.
Using this moralistic approach, Roosevelt argued for intervention with Cuba to help it to become a "just and stable civilization", by way of the Platt amendment. Wilson used a similar moralistic tone when dealing with Mexico.
In , while revolutionaries took control of the government, Wilson judged them to be immoral, and refused to acknowledge the in-place government on that reason alone. In the s typically historians saw the Progressive Era as a prelude to the New Deal and dated it from when Roosevelt became president to the start of World War I in or Much less settled is the question of when the era ended. Some historians who emphasize civil liberties decry their suppression during World War I and do not consider the war as rooted in Progressive policy.
The Senate voted 82—6 in favor; the House agreed, — Some historians see the so-called "war to end all wars" as a globalized expression of the American Progressive movement, with Wilson's support for a League of Nations as its climax. The politics of the s was unfriendly toward the labor unions and liberal crusaders against business, so many if not most historians who emphasize those themes write off the decade.
Urban cosmopolitan scholars recoiled at the moralism of prohibition, the intolerance of the nativists and the KKK, and on those grounds denounced the era. Richard Hofstadter , for example, in wrote that prohibition, "was a pseudo-reform, a pinched, parochial substitute for reform" that "was carried about America by the rural-evangelical virus". Link emphasized, the Progressives did not simply roll over and play dead.
Palmer, pointing to leaders like George Norris , says, "It is worth noting that progressivism, whilst temporarily losing the political initiative, remained popular in many western states and made its presence felt in Washington during both the Harding and Coolidge presidencies.
While some Progressive leaders became reactionaries, that usually happened in the s, not in the s, as exemplified by William Randolph Hearst ,  Herbert Hoover , Al Smith and Henry Ford.
Following the period rapid social change saw a worker's uprising turn to a full scale revolution in Russia in taken over by Bolsheviks along anarchist bombings of by foreigners encroached a large fear over many citizens of a possible Bolshevism revolt to overthrow values which the United States holds up to mainly capitalism. It saw persecutions of many ideals of the progressive era seeing raids, arrests, and persecutions taken place.
Such as the period saw supporters such as worker unions, socialist, and others faced similar prosecutions. Along these convicted were foreigners, African Americans, Jews, Catholics, etc. The US government was also affected both legally and internally as of January saw 6, arrests of persecutions along changes in government policies where the government in acted censorship in the media and suppressing opinion on the matter going as far to use physical assaults or legal arrests having certain civil liberties stripped.
What historians have identified as "business progressivism", with its emphasis on efficiency and typified by Henry Ford and Herbert Hoover  reached an apogee in the s. Wik, for example, argues that Ford's "views on technology and the mechanization of rural America were generally enlightened, progressive, and often far ahead of his times. Tindall stresses the continuing importance of the Progressive movement in the South in the s involving increased democracy, efficient government, corporate regulation, social justice, and governmental public service.
Historians of women and of youth emphasize the strength of the Progressive impulse in the s. Paul Fass, speaking of youth, says "Progressivism as an angle of vision, as an optimistic approach to social problems, was very much alive. By a block of progressive Republicans in the Senate who were urging Hoover to take more vigorous action to fight the depression.
Norris of Nebraska, Robert M. Cutting of New Mexico. While these western Republicans could stir up issues, they could rarely forge a majority, since they were too individualistic and did not form a unified caucus.
They remain staunch isolationists deeply opposed to any involvement in Europe. Outside the Senate, however, a strong majority of the surviving Progressives from the s had become conservative opponents of New Deal economic planning. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Progressive Era disambiguation. Economic development Broad measures Economic growth Empirical evidence Direct democracy Freedom of movement Human enhancement Idea of Progress Industrialisation Linear history Modernity Philosophical progress Philosophy of progress Progressive education in Latin America Progressive rationalism Reform movement Social organization Social progress List of countries Scientific progress Social change Sustainable design Ecological engineering Self-determination Scientific management Scientific method Sustainable development Technological change Techno-progressivism Welfare Women's suffrage.
Muckrakers and Mass media and American politics. National American Woman Suffrage Association. Theodore Roosevelt —; left , William Howard Taft —; center and Woodrow Wilson —; right were the main progressive U. Presidents; their administrations saw intense social and political change in American society. Eugenics in the United States. Jane Addams , social reformer Susan B.
Anthony , suffragist Robert P. Bass , New Hampshire politician Charles A. Jones , politician, reformer Florence Kelley , child advocate Robert M. Boosham, and Robert M. Timberlake, Prohibition and the progressive movement, — pp 1—7. Southern, The Malignant Heritage: Reaction And Reform — ; Norman H. Clark, Deliver Us from Evil: Tyack , The One Best System: Kyvig, Explicit and authentic acts: Constitution, — Kansas UP, pp.
The Search For Order: The A to Z of the Progressive Era. Grenier, "Muckraking the muckrakers: Upton Sinclair and his peers. Stein, "American Muckrakers and Muckraking: The Year Scholarship," Journalism Quarterly, 56 1 pp. Buenker, and Robert M. Progressivism ; Maureen Flanagan, America Reformed: Taylor and the Rise of Scientific Management Spender; Hugo Kijne Frederick Winslow Taylor's Gift to the World? A Journal of Women Studies , Vol. Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism pp.
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