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Synthetic oils on polyglycols basis - PG presently not permissible for BR gearboxes In view of the fact that synthetic oils on polyglycol basis may be incompatible with the paint coat, standard seals and oil sightglass materials employed, these lubricants must not be used without prior consent obtained from the gearbox maker! This symbol signifies danger to the product and the overall plant. Die oberen und unteren Gebrauchstemperaturen einzelner Getriebe?

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Progress Fluid Bucharest Str. Sumy Office Kurski Prospekt 18a, 4. Lube Oils Inhaltsverzeichnis 1. Zweck Diese Norm legt empfohlene Schmier? Die Empfehlungen basieren auf einschl? Hierbei spielt unter anderem die Logistik eine wesentliche Rolle.

Eine qualitative Bewertung zwischen diesen? Bosch Rexroth AG Mannesmannstra? Bei Verwendung einer anderen Viskosit? Die Benutzung von Schmierstoffen, die nicht den nachfolgend spezifizierten Qualit? Es wird ausdrücklich darauf hingewiesen, da? Die oberen und unteren Gebrauchstemperaturen einzelner Getriebe? Diese sowie weitere Daten und Eigenschaften der Getriebe? Nach Angaben der Schmierstoffhersteller sind die aufgeführten Produkte weltweit unter dem selben Handelsnamen verfügbar und weisen vergleichbare technologische Eigenschaften auf.

Eine Vermischung von Mineral? Für den Einsatz dieser? Vor Einsatz eines biologisch schnell abbaubaren? Sie enthalten Wirkstoffe zur Erh? Nicht alle in dieser Werknorm aufgeführten? Bei der Auswahl eines? Bezeichnung für ein Schmier?

Daher ist bei der Erstbefüllung eines konservierten Getriebes ein Spüllauf durchzuführen oder ein Mineral? Sie sind unter anderem unter dem Gesichtspunkt einer definierten Ist-Viskosit? Für die Auswahl einer HYP-? Beim Nachfüllen oder Mischen von? Hier sollte vorher der Schmierstofflieferant auf m? Die aufgeführten Schmierstoffe dürfen auf keinen Fall mit anderen Stoffen vermischt werden. Nach dem Spülen sowie Reinigen mit Petroleum oder anderen Reinigungsmitteln muss das Getriebe vollkommen rückstandsfrei von den zuvor genannten Mitteln sein.

Vor Inbetriebnahme ist ein zus? Forschungsvereinigung Antriebstechnik Forschungsstelle für Zahnr? Purpose This standard specifies recommended lubricating oils to be applied in Bosch Rexroth-Gears for mobile and industrially applications. For wind turbine application please refer to specific lube oil recommendations.

These recommendations are based on applicable product information and many years of experience in this field. The lube oil brands mineral oil, synthetic oil or motorcar transmission oil are primarily selected by the Operator.

In this context, logistics play an important role. The recommendations are not meant to provide quality standards for the individual lube oils. All oils listed are compatible with one-pot paint material not nitrocellulose lacquer BRM-GT uses for inside paint coatings as well as the standard elastomers of NBR and FPM depending on application temperature.

Continuously prevailing higher temperatures will reduce the operating viscosity significantly and lead to premature ageing of the lubricant.

If an admissible temperature limit is exceeded the oil molecules chemically decompose and cause smell, deposits and residues in the system. If higher temperatures are to be expected or higher continuous temperatures are experienced in operating practice, synthetic oils based on polyalphaolefins PAO are to be used that feature a considerably flatter temperature-viscosity characteristic curve.

If the viscosity requirements are not met or a gearbox lube oil other than listed is used the responsibility for technical suitability of the lubricant lies solely with the Operator.

It is expressly pointed out that any lubricant manufacturer or supplier is responsible for the quality of its product, eg with respect to impurities or differences between individual batches.

The maximum and minimum application temperatures of individual gear oils may deviate significantly with regard to the technical parameters of? Relevant data and properties of the gear oils must always be taken from the technical data sheets issued by the oil producers. As pointed out by the lubricant producers, the products listed are available under the same tradename on a worldwide basis and have comparable technological characteristics.

Synthetic oils on polyglycols basis - PG presently not permissible for BR gearboxes In view of the fact that synthetic oils on polyglycol basis may be incompatible with the paint coat, standard seals and oil sightglass materials employed, these lubricants must not be used without prior consent obtained from the gearbox maker!

Mixing polyglycols with mineral oils is strictly prohibited! Results of various research projects, for example FKM No. If such oils are to be used, special materials not BRM-GT standard materials may be needed that have to be tested to ensure they are compatible with the oil. Before using quickly biodegradable oil first filling or brand change consult with the gearbox manufacturer! They contain constituents that improve corrosion protection and ageing resistance as well as reduce wear in the mixed friction range extreme pressure additives.

Low-viscosity oils are almost exclusively needed for use with multiplate brakes. They have been tested by the multiple-plate manufacturer for compatibility and friction behavior. Not all of the lubricants listed in this standard are suited for any conceivable application.

When selecting an oil brand care must be taken to ensure that all the requirements of a given LS Group are met. In the event an oil meets requirements of additional LS Groups this lubricant can be used as well. Mixing both lube oil types is perfectly allowable if this mixing ratio is observed.

Therefore, prior to initial filling of a preserved gearbox the unit must either be flushed out or a mineral oil is to be used as running-in oil. The selection of these lube oils is based, inter alia, on a defined? It is to be noted that micro-pitting frosting test results are not yet available for these oils so that they must exclusively be used for mobile gears.

For the first oil change after commissioning of the gearbox as well as further oil changes the instructions given in the relevant operating manuals are to be followed. The oil volume remaining in the gearbox should be kept to a minimum.

When topping up oil or if oils are to be mixed the quality and viscosity requirements have to be carefully observed. Mixing lubricants of different makers may bring down the quality standard even if the viscosity properties coincide.

In such a case the lubricant supplier should be consulted in advance to check if there are compatibility problems.

The lubricants listed must never be mixed with other substances. The unit must again be flushed out before it is commissioned. Es sollte ein Spüllauf mit geeignetem Spül?

Hinweise Die aufgelisteten Informationen sind Auszüge aus den aktuellen Produktdatenbl? Bosch Rexroth übernimmt für die empfohlenen? Die Produktverantwortung für die aufgelisteten? Vor Einsatz einer bestimmten? Purpose This standard specifies recommended lubricating oils to be applied in Bosch Rexroth-Gears for wind turbine applications.

Bosch Rexroth AG 3. Fully synthetic oils polyalphaolefins PAO These oils can be mixed with mineral oils. PAO oils tend to foaming when mixed with residues of preservation oil! The unit must either be flushed out using a suitable purge oil or a mineral oil must be used as running-in oil.

Note The listed information are excerpts from current product data sheets at the time this company standard was drawn up. The generall overview RNM is part of this recommendation on lube oils. Change of oil as prescribed in the service manual! Bosch Rexroth does not accept any warranty for the recommended oils! The product responsibility for the listed oils is exclusively with the oil manufacturer. Before using a certain type of oil the technical product data sheets and the respective safety data sheets are to be considered.

Schutzvermerk DIN 34 beachten? Oil Sampling Inhaltsverzeichnis 1. Die Probenahme sollte m? Bei notwendigem Stillstand des Getriebes ist die Probe innerhalb von 10 Min. Soll eine wiederholte Probenahme erfolgen, ist es notwendig, eine Entnahmestelle festzulegen und für den Entnahmezeitraum beizubehalten Peilstab? Wichtig ist bei der Auswahl der Entnahmestelle, da? Beim Vorhandensein eines Filters im? Es ist angebracht, die Lage der Entnahmestelle anhand der Konstruktionszeichnung in Rücksprache mit dem Hersteller zu überprüfen.

Vorbereitung der Entnahmestelle und Entnahmeger? Falls die Entnahme der Probe nur im Stillstand erfolgen kann, sind die Entnahmeger? In der Praxis werden aber auch verschiedene, nicht genormte Ansaugvorrichtungen mit einem eventuell verl? Zur Aufnahme der Proben sind saubere, trockene und dichtverschlie? Für jede Probe ist ein gesondertes Aufnahmegef?? Es ist darauf zu achten, da? Für übliche Laboruntersuchungen sollten ca. Zu gering bemessene Mustermengen k? Bei der Beschriftung sind neben den üblichen Daten wie?

Die genaue Beschriftung der? Für eine Schiedsanalyse sind Vereinbarungen über die Person des Probenehmers zu treffen! Inbetriebnahme des untersuchten Getriebes Bevor das Getriebe wieder in Betrieb genommen wird, mu? Tribotechnik im Maschinenbau, Zahnradgetriebeschmierung. Si Mg Al Pb Schmier? Purpose A spent oil analysis serves to assess the lubricant properties, detect damage at an early stage, and obtain information about a practicable extension of oil change intervals.

General Notes A representative oil sample is to be taken in such a manner that the desired properties can be properly checked. In the case of a gearbox filled with up to 5 t of oil one single sample to DIN is deemed to be? As far as practicable, sampling should be carried out with the gearbox running and in heated-up condition.

If the gearbox must be taken out of service, the sample is to be taken within 10 minutes of stopping the unit to ensure no segregation or settling has occurred. If sampling is to be carried out several times, a steady sampling point must be determined and always used for the entire sampling period dipstick opening, filler bore, sampling tap etc.

The decisive criterion in fixing the sampling point is that a sample of the moving oil can be taken. Oil samples from dead spaces or directly from the surface are to be discarded. If an oil filter is arranged in the oil circuit, the sampling point is to be located upstream of the filter. It is recommended to consult the manufacturer to verify whether the sampling point has been correctly determined in line with the design drawing.

Depending on the size of the gearbox it may be expedient to provide an expertly laid out sampling arrangement at the time the unit is mounted. Preparing the Sampling Location and Sampling Equipment The sampling point is to be cleaned with cleansing agents leaving no residues to prevent the samples from being contaminated from the outside.

The sampling equipment including accessories must be clean and dry. The sampling location must be protected against the ingress or influence of moisture rain. In the event the sample can only be taken with the gearbox being stationary, the respective sampling equipment and collecting vessels must be kept ready to enable the work to commence immediately after the unit has been taken out of operation.

If larger gear units have not been equipped with a sampling tap in a suitable location, sampling devices in accordance with DIN should be used, if feasible. However, in operating practice various, non-standardized suction devices, if necessary provided with a suitably extended PVC hose, are also in use.

The samples are to be collected in clean, dry, and tight-sealing containers eg glass bottles, sheet-metal canisters or oil-resistant plastic bottles. Each sample must be filled in a separate container. MS Word 97 Any data or dimensions referred to are exclusively meant to provide nonbinding info on basic product features!

Taking the Oil Sample In order to obtain a representative sample meeting the requirements, the sampling device must be immersed deeply in the moving oil at the defined sampling location and the suction device appropriately filled with oil.

For the purpose of taking a surface sample through the dipstick opening for instance, the hose should be approximately 30 mm longer than the dipstick length supporting collar at end of stick. Neither must the device come into contact with moving components when the gearbox is operating. The sampling container is to be filled; any surplus oil is to be returned into the gearbox.

Care must be taken to ensure hat the device is not immersed in areas where For the usual laboratory tests approx. Sample volumes of insufficient size may impair the required examination procedure. If a PVC hose has been employed for sampling it must by all means be carefully cleaned before it is used again. The sampling container is to be securely closed and labeled at once. The exact description of the oil sample is to be given as per the oil sample sticker on Sheet 4.

In addition to the above mentioned informative data the forms relating to operational and tribological data on Sheets 5 and 6 shall be carefully filled in. Sampling of oils and lubricants shall only be performed by experienced persons. For a referee check analysis an agreement shall be reached about the person who shall take the respective samples! To improve the validity of the examination a fresh oil sample of approx. Spent Oil Analysis When conducting spent oil analyses the individual analysis results shall be shown as listed below: Commissioning of the Checked Gearbox Before the gearbox is again taking into service the oil level must be topped up again to the prescribed level!

Tribo-technology in machine construction, gearbox lubrication Object Oil brand Oil change after h Operating time since oil change h Top-up qty. Remarks Sample taken by: Al Pb Order No.. Gearbox Type Machine No. Attachment Parts Inhaltsverzeichnis 1.

Helios G2x W G2x W? Annular Gear Pumps Fa. Die Inbetriebnahme ist so lange untersagt, bis festgestellt wurde, da? Jeder darüber hinausgehende Gebrauch und Einsatz der Zahnradpumpe gilt als nicht bestimmungsgem?? Für hieraus resultierende Sch? Vorraussetzung für Funktion, Betriebssicherheit und lange Lebensdauer ist vor allem ein stets sauberes F? Daher ist diese Betriebsanleitung unbedingt vor Montage und Inbetriebnahme vom Monteur sowie dem zust? Es sind nicht nur die unter diesem Hauptpunkt Sicherheit aufgeführten, allgemeinen Sicherheitshinweise zu beachten, sondern auch die unter den anderen Hauptpunkten eingefügten speziellen Sicherheitshinweise.

Hinweise zum Schutz der Zahnradpumpe sind mit diesem Symbol gekennzeichnet. Liegen bei dem Personal nicht die notwendigen Kenntnisse vor, so ist dieses zu schulen und zu unterweisen. Weiterhin ist durch den Betreiber sicherzustellen, dass der Inhalt der Betriebsaleitung durch das Personal voll verstanden wird.

Die Nichtbeachtung der Sicherheitshinweise kann zum Verlust jeglicher Schadensersatzansprüchen führen. Im einzelnen kann Nichtbeachtung beispielsweise folgende Gef? Versagen vorgeschriebener Methoden zur Wartung und Instandhaltung? Führen heisse oder kalte Maschinenteile zu Gefahren, müssen diese Teile bauseitig gegen Berührung gesichert sein Leckagen gef? Gesetzliche Bestimmungen sind einzuhalten.

Unmittelbar nach Abschluss der Arbeiten müssen alle Sicherheits- und Schutzeinrichtungen wieder angebracht bzw. Vor der Wiederinbetriebnahme sind die im Abschnitt 7 - Inbetriebnahme - aufgeführten Punkte zu beachten. Die in Abschnitt 2. Saugseitig werden die entstehenden Lückenr? Druckseitig wird das Medium durch die in die Lückenr? Die Zahnradpumpe besteht im wesentlichen aus dem Geh? Die statische Abdichtung erfolgt durch einen O-Ring 10 zwischen Geh?

Eine Wellenabdichtung ist nicht vorhanden, das austretende Lager? Antriebselemente wie Kupplungen und Zahnr? Die Verrohrung muss spannungsarm verlegt werden. In den meisten F? Es empfiehlt sich trotzdem eine Nachrechnung aller Widerst?

Die Saugleitung muss absolut dicht sein. Für den Dauerbetrieb der Zahnradpumpe sind beide Betriebszust? Ist dies nicht m? Daher sind bei jeder Demontage entsprechende Vorkehrungen zum Auffangen der Restflüssigkeiten vorzusehen. Daher sind die erforderlichen Ma? Dies kann erst nach technischer Freigabe der Zahnradpumpe und entsprechender Produktbeobachtung festgelegt werden. Stift der Drehbegrenzung auf Anschlag? Drehzahl zu gering Ger? No warranty claims will be accepted for gear pump faults and damage occuring as a result of insufficient knowledge of the operating instructions.

Any use or application of the gear pump exceeding this intended functional scope is deemed to be in contradiction to the intended purpose and is therefore prohibited.

The manufacturer shall not be held liable for damage as well as any consequential damage that might occur as a result of such misuse. The risk of using in any such application lies solely with the client. Prerequisite for a correct functioning, operational safety and a long service life is, primarily, that the medium conveyed is clean, does not attack the gear pump material and does not contain additives that lead to or promote wear.

No liability will be assumed for damage caused if these operating instructions are disregarded. Attention must be paid not only to the general notes on safety described in this main safety section but also to the specific safety instructions prescribed in other paragraphs.

Notes intended to safeguard the gear pump have been signified by this symbol. Area of responsibility, competence and supervision of personnel must have been clearly defined by the operator. If the personnel lacks the required technical knowledge appropriate training and teaching must be initiated. Moreover, the operator must insure that the contents of the operating instructions has been clearly understood by the staff concerned.

Please note that claim for damages may become forfeited if the safety instructions are not duly followed. In particular, a failure to observe these instructions may give rise to the following dangerous situations: Ineffectiveness of prescribed methods of maintenance and repair.

Hazards for personnel by mechanical or chemical influences. Environmental risks due to leakage of harmful substances 3. In the event that hot and cold machinery parts create danger these components must be safeguarded by the plant owner to prevent accidental contact. Any leakage of hazardous media conveyed in the system e. Any applicable legal provisions have to be duly observed. Basically, all work carried out on the machine must be performed when the machine is at a standstill.

All safety protective systems have to be replaced or make fully function able as soon as the work has been completed. Before re-commissioning the system the remarks given in section 7 -Commissioning - must be carefully read. If unauthorized spare parts are used, no liability for consequences that may arise will be assumed.

The maximum values prescribed in section 2. Special measures to be taken for packing, preservation etc. The gear pump R When the shaft rotates the gearteeth of wheel and annulus engage with each other, ie.

On the suction side, the resulting gap space fills with medium due to the vacuum that builds up. On the delivery side the medium is displaced by the teeth engaging with the gap spaces axial displacement. The gear pump consists essentially of casing 1 , end cover 2 , gear casing 3 as well as the gear shaft 4 and the annulus 5.

The housing and end cover are fitted with plain bearings that are lubricated by means of the medium conveyed. The static sealing between casing and end cover is effected by a o-ring A shaft sealing is not existing, the exiting bearing oil pressureless enters the sump of the gearbox.

Greatest pureness is important. Drive elements such as couplings and gearwheels must not be driven onto the shaft by hammering, otherwise gear pump damage may occur. The pipework must be laid to avoid undue stresses. The size of the gear pump suction connection does not govern the cross sectional area of the piping. In most cases a suction line cross section will be sufficient that matches the gear pump inlet cross section. It is nevertheless recommendable to determine all elements of resistance in the system gravity suction head, pressure losses in the piping and across piping components - non-return valve, bends etc.

The suction line must be absolutely tight. Any unusual noise may be indicative of air being sucked into the gear pump or of the pump operating in the cavitation range. Both operating states are intolerable for a constantly operating gear pump. The direction of flow is marked on the end cover of the pump by means of a cast-on arrow.

In the event difficult intake conditions are encountered the gear pump has to be mounted in such a position that some residual fluid remains in the pump. Should this be impossible the gearwheels of the pump must be wetted with the conveyed fluid prior to commissioning.

Therefore, appropriate steps must be taken when dismantling the pump to collect this liquid. Depending on the type of medium conveyed exiting liquids may endanger man and environment!

For that reason effective steps must be taken in conformity with the safety data sheets of the respective liquids. This can only be decided on after the gear pump has been technically released and the product monitored for a sufficient period of time. Is the pin of the turning limit fixed? When turning the shaft by hand, does the pin contact the stop audibly?

Check operating parameters Liquid level? Kurzdarstellung Die Belüftungsfilter Pi bis Pi haben ein k or rosionsfestes, topff? Ein Deck el mit Schutzrand h? Mit diesen Filtern atmet Ihr Beh? Sie for dert für Belüftungsfilter die gleiche Feinheit wie für Systemfilter. Mit dem Mol-Element kann das Austreten von Aerosolen verhindert werden. In einer sterngefalteten Coalescerschicht coagulieren die Aerosole zu Flüssigk eit stropfen und werden in den Beh?

T echnische Daten Abscheidung: Mic Sm-L Mol T emperaturbereich: Pi Pi bis Pi Best? G1 M 22 x 1,5 80 80 80 80 ,5 ,5 ,5 ,5 ,5 ,5 ,5 80 27 Pi M 33 x 2 20 19 16 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 16 15 22 32 - 26 Schutzgitter 3 4 4 5 3? Sie zeigen an, wann der Wartungszeitpunk t für das Filterelement erreicht ist, und vermeiden hierdurch unn? DerV erschmutzungsanzeiger , Schaltpunk t mm WS, ist in zwei V arianten, mit optischer Anzeige und elek trischem signal, erh? V erschmutzungsanzeiger Weitere technische Angaben enth?

Befülladapter mit W alther V erschlu? Description The Pi trough Pi breather filters have pot -shaped housings made of non-corrosive material. The air intake is located in the upper section, this prevents surface dust to be drawn in from the tank top. The cover is designed to prevent entry of splashwater. The disposable, pleated elements can be replaced in a matter of seconds. The Pi through Pi breather filters have a housing made of galvanized sheet metal.

The built -in o-ring provides accurate at the tank connection. These specify the same filtration degree for the breather filter as the system filter utelizes. The oil vapors coagulate, forming drops within the pleated coalescer layer , which are returned to the tank. Mic Sm-L Mol T emperature range: Pi Pi to Pi Resistance: A 2 mm dia. G1 M 22 x 1,5 80 80 80 80 ,5 ,5 ,5 ,5 ,5 ,5 ,5 80 27 M 33 x 2 20 19 16 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 16 15 22 32 - 26 without protect.

They indicate when the filter element must be serviced an thus save unnecessary costs. The contamination indicator responds at mm water column and is available in two variations, i. The unit is connected to the filter housing via an M 10 x 1 external thread nipple. Contamination indicator For further information also see our leaflet Contamination indicators! Connection for filling coupling Possibility to connect an extension pipe Order number Ein mit Magneten bestückter Schwimmer bewegt sich ver?

Bei mehreren Niveau-Schaltpunkten kann man verschiedene Alarmfunktionen ausl? Bei Zwischenschaltungen geeigneter Relais k? Die Vorteile dieser Schalteinheiten bestehen darin, da? Montage Barksdale-Schwimmerschalter werden durch die Tankoberseite bzw. Die Einheiten sind nach M? Nicht selten sollen auch Lampenlasten oder? In all diesen F? Man schaltet eine Freilaufdiode parallel zur Last.

Beim Schalten von Wechselspannung kann eine Diode nicht zur Anwendung kommen. Die Dimensionierung einer solchen Bogend? Beim Schalten von aufgeladenen Kondensatoren z. Die Entladestromspitze wird weitgehend durch einen Reihenwiderstand zum Kondensator herab- gesetzt. Jedenfalls sollte er so gro? Diese Einschaltleistungen dürfen nicht überschritten werden, da sonst die Schaltkontakte verschwei?

Lange Kabel nehmen beim Einschalten einen Lampenlasten eingegangen werden. Bekanntlich hohen kapazitiven Ladestrom auf. Metallfaden-Glühlampen nehmen beim fache Einschaltstromsto?

Reihe geschalteten Stromgrenzwiderstand auf ein Schwimmerschalter mit z. Eine andere Schaltleistung k? Achten Sie besonders Widerstandes zum Schalter, der den Lampenfaden darauf, wenn Sie zur Durchgangsprüfung eine im ausgeschalteten Zustand dauernd so weit Glühlampe verwenden. Beide Schutzarten sind mit Leistungsverlust verbunden. Beim Schalten von Gleichspannungen ist induktiven Verbrauchern, wie Relais, Magentventilen und dergleichen zur Funkenl?

Kabelverschraubungen von Schwimmerschaltern sollten am Anschlu? Wartung schild angegeben 4. Das Gleitrohr des Schwimmerschalters darf nicht verbogen oder harten Schl? Vorhandene Stellringe, Greifringe oder Spannschellen dürfen nicht verschoben werden, da sonst die Schaltfunktion? Einschaltleistung laut Prospekt betr? Der maximale Betriebsdruck ist abh? A float equipped with magnets moves variably with the changing liquid level.

The magnetic field actuates a reed switch which is positioned inside the sliding tube at a pre- destinated place and with this closes respec- tively interrupts the current circuit. With several level switching points different alarm functions can be released. When suitable relays are interposed, the signals can be utilized in control systems respectively the pump controls can be executed automatically.

The units should be mounted vertically if possible. Contact Protection The indicated values for power, voltage and capacity are valid for purely resistive loads. Quite frequently though, the loads are covered with inductive and capacitative components. Some land movements occur because of isostatic adjustment of the mantle to the melting of ice sheets at the end of the last ice age.

The weight of the ice sheet depresses the underlying land, and when the ice melts away the land slowly rebounds. Changes in ground-based ice volume also affect local and regional sea levels by the readjustment of the geoid and true polar wander. Atmospheric pressure , ocean currents and local ocean temperature changes can affect LMSL as well. Eustatic change as opposed to local change results in an alteration to the global sea levels due to changes in either the volume of water in the world's oceans or net changes in the volume of the ocean basins.

There are many factors which can produce short-term a few minutes to 14 months changes in sea level. Two major mechanisms are causing sea level to rise. First, shrinking land ice, such as mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets, is releasing water into the oceans. Second, as ocean temperatures rise, the warmer water expands.

For at least the last years, sea level has been rising at an average rate of about 1. Additional contributions, as much as one-quarter of the total, come from water sources on land, such as melting snow and glaciers and extraction of groundwater for irrigation and other agricultural and human uses. Pilots can estimate height above sea level with an altimeter set to a defined barometric pressure.

Generally, the pressure used to set the altimeter is the barometric pressure that would exist at MSL in the region being flown over. Since the terrain elevation is also referenced to MSL, the pilot can estimate height above ground by subtracting the terrain altitude from the altimeter reading.

Aviation charts are divided into boxes and the maximum terrain altitude from MSL in each box is clearly indicated. Once above the transition altitude, the altimeter is set to the international standard atmosphere ISA pressure at MSL which is From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Average level for the surface of the ocean at any given geographical position on the planetary surface.

For other uses of "Sea level", see Sea level disambiguation. Height above mean sea level. Ocean Reference ellipsoid Local plumb line Continent Geoid.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Past sea level and sea level rise. Global warming , Ocean heat content , and Effects of global warming on oceans. Journal of Geophysical Research. Roman Glazman Greysukh, A. Retrieved 10 June The Physical Science Basis. Retrieved from " https: Sea level Geodesy Physical oceanography Oceanographical terminology.

Articles with short description Use dmy dates from September All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Commons category link from Wikidata. Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 3 January , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Rotational variations Chandler wobble. Evaporation and precipitation may also follow long-term pattern. Ocean surface topography changes in water density and currents. Seasonal water density changes temperature and salinity.